What Is Computer Programming – Full Information

What Is Computer Programming – Full Information

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Computer Programming is a step by step process of designing and developing various sets of computer programs to accomplish a specific computing outcome. Programs are a set of codes that take some input and produce an output. Programming involves tasks such as: Analysis, Generating Algorithms, Profiling Algorithms’ Accuracy and Resource Consumption. Though the code generated depends upon the type of computer language used, however the procedure should be a set of general rules to solve the given problem and should be independent of the language used. The purpose of computer programming is to find a sequence of instructions that solve a specific problem on a computer.

  • The implementation of algorithms in a chosen programming language commonly referred to as coding. Programming is a set of logical equations and the general rule is meant to solve a given problem step by step, based on some procedure or logic. The programming language is a tool to implement the rules. The source code of a program is written in one or more programming languages ​​that are easily understood by programmers instead of machine code, which is executed directly by the central processing unit (CPU).
  • The first commercially available language was FORTRAN (Formula Translation), developed in 1956 (first manual appeared in 1956, but first developed in 1954) by a team led by John Backus at IBM. The C programming language was developed at AT&T’s Bell Laboratories in USA in 1972. It was design and written by Dennis MacAlistair Ritchie, who is also known as the ‘Father of Modern Computer Programming’.

Writing a computer program is very easy if it is managed properly. There are many computer programming languages available like C, C++, JAVA, PYTHON, R, SWIFT, KOTLIN etc. So finalizing the right programming language is not an easy task.

Today we are going to have an in-depth discussion about ‘What Is Computer Programming – Full Information’. So let’s get started.

Types of Programming Languages

A computer program is also called computer software, which can range from two lines to millions of lines of instructions. Tasks accompanying and related to programming include: Program Definition, Program Design, Program Coding, Testing, Documentation, Source Code Maintenance, Debugging and implementation of build systems and management of derived artifacts, such as machine code of computer programs.

There are mainly two types of programming languages: – 1. High Level Languages 2. Low Level Languages.

High Level Language Or Problem Oriented Language:

 In Computer Science, a high-level language is a programming language that enables the development of a program in a much more user-friendly programming context with strong abstraction from the details of the computer. This type of language is usually independent of the computer’s hardware architecture. The terms high-level and low-level are inherently relative.

High-level languages allow programmers to write instructions in a language that is easier to understand than low-level languages. Just like low-level languages, high-level languages must be converted to machine code before a computer can understand and run them. This is done using a ‘translator’. Different translators convert the same high level code into machine code for different computers.

In the 1960s, high-level programming languages using a compiler were commonly called autocodes. The first high-level programming language designed for computers was Plankalkul, created by Konrad Zus (However, it was not implemented in his time).

The first significantly widespread high-level language was FORTRAN, which was developed by John Backus & IBM Team. It is a machine-independent development of IBM’s earlier Autocode Systems.

Examples of high level languages: FORTRAN, PASCAL, BASIC, C#, JAVA, PYTHON, RUBY, PERL, PHP, VISUAL BASIC, DELPHI, ECMAScript and many others.

Computer Programming Languages
Programming Languages

Low Level Language Or Machine Oriented Language:

A low-level language is a programming language that provides little or no abstraction of programming concepts. Low-level languages are sometimes described as being ‘close to the hardware’ because it is very close to writing actual machine instructions. Generally, a low-level programming language refers to either Machine Code or Assembly Language.

Low level languages are used to write programs that relate to the specific architecture and hardware of a particular type of computer. They are closer to the native language of a computer (binary language), making them harder for programmers to understand. Low-level languages can convert to machine code without a compiler or interpreter.

The first assembly languages were developed in the 1940s. This Language appeared in 1949, was a low-level computer language that simplified the language of machine code i.e. the specific instructions necessary to operate a computer.

Example of low level languages: Assembly Language, Machine Language.

In Computer Science, there is also another type of programming language available, which is considered as a Middle Level Language. Middle level language (MLL) is a computer programming language that interacts with the abstraction layer of a computer system. This type of language serves as the bridge between the raw hardware and programming layer of a computer system.

Example: The C Programming Language is also known as the middle-level language because we can do system programming as well as application programming in this language. It was designed to have the positive points of both types of languages.

Middle Level Language

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Use of Computer Programs

Today computer programs are being used in almost every field such as household, agriculture, education and research field, medical, defense, communication, entertainment and designing etc. Let’s take a look at some important uses of computer programming: –

  • To develop graphics and special effects in movie making, for VFX (Visual Effects) and also for commercial solution.
  • To build software and applications for computer or mobile device.
  • Computer programming is also used to create and design websites.
  • A computer program easily processes a large amount of data, making it easy to save people time.
  • There is a huge demand of programming languages ​​for the new Blockchain Technology. There are a heap of programming languages that can be used for Blockchain Development. This includes primitive languages like C++, Python, Java and JavaScript and new entrants like Simplicity, Solidity and CX.
  • Nowadays, programming languages ​​are widely used in the Gaming and Animation Industries.
  • Computer programs are also being used for ultrasound, X-rays and other medical examinations.
  • Programming knowledge is essential for the Cyber Security and Hacking Industry.
  • It is also required to build Operating Systems for PCs or mobile devices. Example: Windows OS, MacOS, Android, Linux, UNIX etc.
  • For Data Analysis, Data Management, Data Processing and many more.

Most Popular Programming Languages

There’s no question that software programming is a hot career right now. Employment of software developers, quality assurance analysts, and testers is projected to grow 22 percent from 2019 to 2029, much faster than the average for all occupations and for this reason many IT jobs require a solid grasp of the Top Programming Languages.

Let’s take a look at some of the popular programming languages: –

PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE YEAR (ABOUT) WRITTEN BY USE
C1972  Dennis Ritchie   (At bell laboratories of AT&T, American Telephone & Telegraph, located in the U.S.A.)  1. It is used for developing system applications.  

2. It is widely used for developing desktop applications. Most of the applications by Adobe are developed using ‘C’ programming language.  
C++1985
Bjarne Stroustrup
 
1.  C++ is widely used in Game Development, Advance Computations, and Graphics Compilers.  

2. It can be used to develop operating systems, browsers, applications and so on.  
JAVA1991James Gosling1. Java is Mostly used for developing Android apps, web apps, Big data technologies, gaming applications, Desktop GUI applications etc.  

2. It is also used to create the complete applications that can run on a single computer.  
PYTHONFebruary 20, 1991Guido van Rossum1. It is used to develop websites and software, data analysis and data visualization, task automation etc.  

2. It is widely used in AI and Machine Learning space.  
C#2000Anders Hejlsberg (Microsoft’s Software Engineer)1. It is widely used in Enterprise Cross-Applications Development, Web Applications, desktop apps, cloud-based services etc.  

2. It is also used in Gaming Industries.  
SWIFTFirst appeared on June 2, 2014Chris Lattner1. Swift is a robust and intuitive programming language created by Apple for building apps for iOS, Mac, Apple TV, and Apple Watch.  

2. Open-source Swift can be used on Linux to build Swift libraries and applications.  
GO (GOLANG)November 10, 2009Ken Thompson1. Go was originally built for programs related to networking and infrastructure.  

2. It is used for a variety of applications like cloud and server side applications, DevOps, Console utilities, GUI applications, command line tools and web applications and much more.  
R1995Robert Gentleman and Ross Ihaka1. R is a programming language for statistical computing and graphics.  

2. It is also used in Data Science projects and Machine learning.  
KOTLINJuly 22, 2011JetBrains1. Kotlin is used extensively for Android apps, web application, desktop application, and server-side application development.  

2. It is focused on interoperability, safety, clarity and tooling support.  
RUBY1995Yukihiro “Matz” Matsumoto1. Ruby is most used for building web applications.  

2. It is widely used for websites such as Airbnb, Hulu, Kickstarter and Github.  
SCALAJanuary 20, 2004Martin Odersky1. It is used for functional programming and strong static systems.  

2. It is object-oriented and it runs on JVM (Java Virtual Machine).

:: Brief chart list of top Programming Languages

Hope you enjoy this article on ‘What Is Computer Programming – Full Information’. If you have any query, please comment; I will try my best to solve them. THANK YOU.

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FunFacts!!

  • “C++, JAVA and SAY are presumably growing faster than plain C, but I bet C will still be around.”  – Dennis Ritchie (‘Father of Modern Computer Programming’, 1941-2011).
  • There are about 700 programming languages, including esoteric coding languages.

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